The tactics at the beginning of the Civil War were left over from the smooth
bore musket. The advent of the rifled musket tripled the effective range
of the infantry. The artillery had to back up to move further away.
There was much experimentation starting just before the Civil War with breech
loading guns. There were many models of breech loading carbines for the
cavalry, but it wasn't until near the end of the Civil War that a serviceable
metallic cartridge was made for a breech loading musket.
General Information on Civil War Guns
Common Guns in the Civil War
More on the Civil War
The National Park Service has added an excellent page on the Civil War
Signal Corp at
the website on the Battle of Antietam.
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